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PROF. TARA WEISS'
ESL 91 D03B
FALL, 2000
FOCUS DISCIPLINE WORK

The students in Prof. Weiss' ESL 91 D03B class did focus discipline work, using the text Interdisciplinary English by Loretta F. Kasper. These are examples of their work.

Abdul 1
Abdul 2
Alex
Jenny

Abdul Alazzwaer
ESL 91 D03B
Fall, 2000
Professor Tara Weiss

Culture and language

The world is made into different countries. It involves different languages and different cultures. We see a lot people from different countries. They speak their own language, but they have to learn to speak English in order to work. We see the American cultures are different from our culture. We have to accept American culture because it is their culture and we can't do anything change it.

Languages are important to an individual. We have our own languages that we can depend on it to know the new language. In order to learn the new languages, an individual must use their language for translation of English word. English is very hard for the beginners. An individual has to take E.S.L.

It takes time for emigrants to learn English. We have to looking up the word that we find difficult to understand in the dictionary. Emigrants faces difficulties in their the first-year and second-year until they learn the English language step by step. It is hard to find a job because the employer always asks the potential employee if he or she speak English. Sometimes the employer will accept the employee if the employee speaks little bit of English. Another reasons that the employer will accept the employee if employee has an experience. Everybody goes through the situation when they come to America. We have to be patient and we should take some classes in English.

I was struggling in the first-year and second-year. I was taking E.S.L in High School. I was lost in school and I didn't understand the conversation of the American people. So I realized how important the Arabic language to me and I believe that everybody went through the situation that I went through.

Culture is very valuable to an individual. It is based on beliefs and behaviors. Some cultures focus on religious belief such as Middle East countries, which focus on three major religions. Christianity, Jewish and Islam are the major religions that are the part of Middle East cultures. It is reflected in what we wear and what type food we eat.

It is set of principles and tradition that transmitter from generation to generation. Human beings created culture and since human beings created culture it can be easier to change. We see how generation change us so fast especially in modern nation such as United State. We are hooked on technology, which provides us the modern clothes.

In my culture women wear scarves over their. Women are supposed to look for their husband only. They are not supposed to show off their beauty for the other people. It is forbidding for women to go out with men that she doesn't know. Women can get an education, but she also waits for the right men to come to marry her. I still keep my culture and I am proud of it

American culture is very independent for both men and woman. In America we see a lot women want to do the men job such as construction. Women have been in competition against men because they want to prove that they can beat them. They have won the competition and men have realized the ability of women power.

Language and culture are important for the individual. We should be proud of our language and our culture. It is easy to learn other language by taking one's own language and translate to the new language. Culture is a way of life that number of people shares the same belief. Since human creates culture we can see a lot change from one generation to another generation.


Abdul Alazzwaer
ESL 91 D03B
Fall, 2000
Professor Tara Weiss

NUTRITION AND DIET

Nutrition and Diet are the important issues in our society. We are going to discuss the three examples of nutritional food such as Carbohydrates, Fats and Proteins. These are the most essential foods that are recommended for our body. So we have to eat proper foods, which are found in vegetables, fruits and grains.

Carbohydrates found in grains and vegetables. They give the body the benefit of a good health bonus of Vitamin, Mineral and Fiber. Grains are found in bread, cereal, rice and pasta. Grains have lots of Vitamin B such as Thiamin, Riboflavin and Niacin. Carolyn explains the importance of vitamin in the body and where we can get it from food. Vitamin B1 or Thiamin provides body to change carbohydrates into energy. It metabolizes protein and fat. It is found in whole grain, bran, beans and peas. Vitamin B2 or Riboflavin helps body to use proteins and fats. It gives normal vision and healthy skin. We can find Riboflavin in meat, fish, chicken, dairy product, spinach, broccoli.

Niacin prevents pellagra and it provides cells use oxygen to release energy in the metabolism of glucose. We can find Niacin in whole grain, enriched, cereal, meat, poultry, peanuts and mushroom. Now we see how grains have all the vitamins that the body need. We may not realize that simple food like cereal, rice and pasta can give us the entire vitamin for the body.

Minerals are nutrients that are essential processes in the body. Minerals are most valuable in a balanced diet. So if you eat right, your body will receive adequate amounts. Based on the article from Internet, minerals are good to regulate blood pressure and it regulates heart muscle contraction. Mineral must be in large amounts, which we can get the benefit such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur. We also can get mineral from variety food such as meats, dairy products, vegetables, beans and grains. Scientist believes the more mineral you take the better benefit for healthy body.

Iron is formation of healthy red blood cells prevention of anemia. It helps carry oxygen to cells. It is recommended for women between ages of 11 and 50 to compensate for iron loss during menstruation. The best food sources to find iron are in lean red meats, shellfish, legumes, dried fruit and green leafy vegetables.

Magnesium is good for energy production, normal heart, nerve function and prevent muscle cramps. The best food sources are Green Leafy, Vegetables, Shellfish, tofu, legumes, nuts and seeds.

Proteins form the body's main structural elements. They are found in every cell and tissue. The body uses proteins for growth and repair bone, muscles, connective tissue, skin, internal organs and blood.

Fiber is indigestible carbohydrate found in the cell walls of plant foods. High-fiber diet keeps your digestive system running smoothly. It helps us to lose weight and it may lower the risk of heart disease.

Carolyn believes that vegetables have all the benefit that the body need. Vegetables are found in raw broccoli, carrots and green beans. Vegetables are consists of Vitamin A and C, Folic Acid. It is also found Mineral such as Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium and Fiber. Vitamin A or beta-carotene is essential for vision, healthy skin, hair, nails and resistance to infection. The best food sources are liver, egg yolks, whole milk, butter and skim milk. Beta-carotene is changed to vitamin A in the body. It is found in dark-green leafy vegetables. Vitamin C prevents scurvy. It helps heal wounds by promoting collagen formation. We can find vitamin C in citrus fruit, vegetables, especially red and green peppers.

Folic Acid is the essential for normal cell division and red blood cell formation. It is found in green leafy vegetables, dry beans, peas, orange juice, avocado, and asparagus.

Potassium is to regulate the balance of the body fluid. It promotes normal heart rhythm and prevents muscle cramping. The best sources are bananas, dried fruits, vegetables, legumes and low fat milk. (100, 101, 103)

Magnesium is needed for energy production, normal heart and nerve function. The best food sources are green leafy vegetable, shellfish, tofu, legumes, nuts and seeds.

Fiber is indigestible carbohydrates found in cell of plant foods. Fiber is found in all-bran cereal, bran chex cereal, broccoli and carrot.(Internet)

Davis and Sherer believe that the simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides. They are absorbed without further digestion. The monosaccharides are found in foods. There are four examples of the body metabolize such as glucose, fructose, galactose and mannose. Glucose is also called dextrose or corn sugar. Glucose is found in many fruit such as grapes, oranges and dates. Glucose is the principal product constructed by digestion of disaccharide and polysaccharides. It gives energy for the cells via the blood stream.

Fructose is sugar known as laevulose. It is found in honey and fruit. It is so sweet that is part monosaccharide. It is produces from glucose. Sweet fruit such as apple, banana, guava all full fructose and honey is also fructose because it good for the body

Galactose is a product of lactose digestion (milk sugar). The primary source of galactose is in milk and legumes.

Davis and Sherer believe that

"Disaccharides are important in human metabolism because they give the body function only after they have been digested. They all hydrolyzed during digestion for absorption as shown:
SUCROSE=GLUCOSE+FRUCTOSE
MALTOSE=GLUCOSE+GLUCOSE
LACTOSE=GLUCOSE+GALACTOSE"

Davis and Sherer believe that sucrose is found in sugar cane or sugar beets. It is also found in molasses, maple syrup and maple sugar. Some fruits and vegetables such as apricots, peaches, plums, raspberries, honeydew, cantaloupe, beets, carrots, winter squash, peas, corn and sweet potatoes. They are all have a lot of sucrose.

Lactose is found in milk. Lactose is a unique mammal and it composed from cow milk and human milk. Lactose is changed to lactic acid such as buttermilk and yogurt. Maltose is also called malt sugar. It is made in bread making, brewing and in present beer. It is found in some processed cereals and baby foods.

Polysaccharides are energy stored and it is digestible. Starches are complex carbohydrates in diet. It is found in cereal, root, vegetables and legumes. The starches in vegetable have increased the maturity. Glucose polymers are products that can be mixed with most foods and beverage without making them excessively sweet. It has low osmolality and it absorbed as glucose. Glycogen is stored in the muscle and liver. The excess glucose is converted to glycogen. (94,95,96,97,98)

Fat adds rich flavor in food that tastes so good in our mouth. The body needs little fat to build healthy cells. It keeps skin and hair healthy. It provides a layer of insulation beneath the skin. Saturated fats are very dangerous type. It can lead to a higher risk of heart disease. Fats are found in animal foods and dairy product. Most saturated fats raised blood cholesterol and increasing the levels of low-density lipoprotein. We can avoid saturated fat by replacing it with more polyunsaturated monounsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated found in vegetables and fish oil. Monounsaturated fats in olive oil, canola oil and peanut oil. (Internet)

Cataldo, DeBruyne and Whitney explain the importance of fat. Fat is a member of the class of compounds called lipids. The lipids are in foods and in the human body. It included triglycerides, phospholipids and sterols. Within the fat cell, lipid is stored in a droplet. This droplet can greatly enlarge and the cell membrane will grow to accommodate its swollen contents. Figure 3.1 (p.58)

Triglycerides control both diet and body. The name triglycerides means three fatty acids attached to glycerol or backbone. Glycerol is an organic compound, which form three carbons long to link backbone of triglycerides. Fatty acids are organic compounds composed of a chain of carbon with hydrogen attached. Fatty acids are broken into small fragment, which are linked into chain known as fatty acids.

Phospholipids are the one of the three main classes of lipids. These compounds are same as triglycerides. Choline and phosphorus containing acid in place of one of the fatty acids. Choline is a nonessential nutrient that can be made in the body from an amino acid. Phosphorus keeps the bone density and provides energy production and balances blood chemistry.

The essential fatty acids of human body can synthesize all from carbohydrate, fat, and protein. Linoleic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid found in the seeds of plants and in the oil produce from the seeds. Diet that contains vegetables, seeds, nuts and whole-grain foods provides enough linoleic acid. Linolenic acid and other omega-3 fatty acids are belongs to a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids. (58, 59, 60, 61)

Proteins form the body's main structural elements. It found in every cell and tissue. Our body needs proteins for growth and repair bone, muscles, connective tissue and internal organs. The quality of a food protein is in part measured by its amino acid content. There are 22 amino acids the body needs. It can be linked in thousands different ways to form thousands of different proteins. The quality of protein is measured in amino acid. Human beings require Nine out of twenty two amino acids. It is called essential and it comes from the diet. The other 13 are considered nonessential because the body can make them. A complete protein contains all the essential amino acid in amounts in our body. Animal proteins from eggs, meat, fish, poultry, cheese and milk are generally complete. Plant proteins from fruits, vegetables, grains and beans. They usually low in essential amino acid and it considered incomplete. (Internet)

My personal remark about nutrition and diet is eating vegetables and fruit will give the entire vitamin that you want. Vegetables are considered the best source of healthy food. The latest discovery stated that vegetables and fruits are cured of all diseases. Polyunsaturated fats are found in vegetables and monounsaturated fats found in olive oils, canola oils and peanut oils. I suggest that everybody should eat vegetables, fruits and grains.

I have gathered all the sources about nutrition and diet. I have realized the valuable food that comes from grains and vegetables. These are recommended for everybody to increase our body by eating more vegetables and grains for the benefit of the body. They contain all the vitamins for the body. Polyunsaturated fats are found in vegetable and fish oil and monounsaturated fats found in olive oil. I also suggest that everybody should exercise to burn all food so it can convert to energy.

Bibliography

Judi Davis, Kim Sherer. Applied Nutrition and Diet Therapy for Nurses (2nd), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: W.B. Saunders 1994

L.Kathleen Mahan, Sylvia Escotta-Stump, Krause's. Food, Nutrition & Diet Therapy (9th Edition). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: W.B. Saunders 1996

Corinne Balog Cataldo, Linda Kelly Debruyne, Eleanor Noss Whitney. Nutrition and Diet Therapy (5th Edition)

Belmont, CA:1999

Edited by Carolyn E. Forte associate director, director Amy Barr. Household Encyclopedia: Hearst Books, New York, copyright 1993.

Nutrition Guide. http://kccesl.tripod.com


Alex (Yung Ning Yang)
ESL 91 D03B
Fall, 2000
Prof. Tara Weiss

The Computer and Its History

Every one of us has used or seen a computer before. However, do you ever think about why the computer work for us? Let us investigate why the computer can work for us through the comparison between humans and computers and through the influence of the machine on human society.

The physical parts of a computer are called hardware. It consists of many parts. CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the brain of the computer. Memory is short-term storage. Hard drive and Disk are long-term storage. Mouse and Keyboard are input devices. Monitor (or Screen) is an output device.

Another part of the computer is called software, the programs that run a computer. Software is not really tangible. A piece of software is a program or a collection of programs plus associated data. A computer program is a series of instructions telling the computer what to do. Computer can be programmed to perform many kinds of tasks. You may have worked with word-processing programs like Microsoft word. In fact, if you have worked on a computer in any way, you have been using a program. These programs constitute the software used with a computer system. (Chapter 0 Introduction " Problem solving with C" 10).

An example would clarify the confusion with the relationship between hardware and software. When a baby is born, the baby does not know how to do a lot of things even though he has a body and a brain. The baby has to acquire knowledge and skills, which will be installed in his brain and guide his body how to do things. The hard ware of the computer is just like the body and the brain; and the software of the computer is like the knowledge and skills. The software will tell the hardware to do things.

Now we know why the computer can work for us, let us start our discussion of the history of the computer and how the compute has influenced our lives.

About two thousand years ago, the Chinese created the abacus to help them do calculations. The abacus was probable the precursor of the modern compute. The idea behind the abacus is similar to today's computer. The abacus acted as the monitor, keyboard and disk, while the human brain acted as the CPU. Basic math, the knowledge of how to use the abacus and the finger skills (similar to typing) is acted as the software. Because the abacus is so effective for some people, it is still used in some small business stores in China.

About 200 years ago, a mathematician in Europe tried to create a machine that can solve mathematical problems. Other mathematicians followed his idea and continued it. However, the idea of the modern computer still remained in a level of theory. (Kasper, 1998, Unit 3 Computer Science "INTERDISCIPLINARY ENGLISH" 51-52)

It was not until in 1946, when the first generation of computers was created in the United State. It was called the "ENIAC" (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). It was very big, ten feet tall, 1800 square feet of space, and weighing thirty tons. Its speed was 5,000 additions per second. The second generation of computes was created in 1960. Its speed was ten times faster that the ENIAC, and it was also smaller. The third generation of computers was created in 1965. Its speed was one million additions per second. It was smaller and more dependable than the earlier computers. The development of the fourth and fifth generation of computer, which began in 1971, still continues to this day. They are 50 times faster than the previous ones. (Unit 3 Computer Science " INTERDISCIPLINARY ENGLISH" 52-53 )

We are in the year 2000 now, 54 years after the birth of the ENIAC. Let us compare the ENIAC and today's PC (Personal Computer) to see what happened to computer in these years.

PC of 2000 ENIAC

Speed (addition/s)2,400 million 5,000

Store (digits)256 million 200

Size inches entire room

Weigh pounds 30 tons

In the beginning, human beings created the computers just for the purpose of solving their math problems. Without the drive to improve methods in calculations, the computer of today would have never been born.

The advancement of the compute technology is not only driven to solving math problems, but also due to solving problems of many other fields. In business and industry, computer systems perform countless tasks from maintaining business records to controlling manufacturing processes. We can find computers in banks, companies and factories. The functions of computers are improving, and the price for computers are declining at the same time. Therefore, computers exist in more and more houses, and bringing Internet (information super high way) to our homes. On the Internet, we can go shopping, read news and chat with friends; we can also write and receive Electronic-mail, make a free long distance phone call and communicate face to face oversees through a camera. Today's computer can even understand what we are saying through a microphone. For example, we can speak Chinese in a computer and the computer can translate it in English and print it out.

Today's computer is being upgraded faster and faster. The newest CPU in the beginning of this year was 700 MHZ (megahertz). Now it is already 1,500 MHZ. Following this trend, I guess that human beings can create a computer robot in next century. This invention would offer much convenience for us. However, we should think about how artificial intelligence (robots) would affect human society, especially our children. We know that our children only like to use an electronic calculator now. If a computer robot is created to do everything for us, our children would have nothing to do, making their brains useless. They will not learn and will have no need to learn anything. Human beings would lose many skills they once had. Although we recognize the importance of computers in our lives, we should not solely rely and depend on machines to function.


Jenny Fung
ESL 91 D03B
Fall, 2000

The Socialization of Eating Disorders

Millions of people in the United States suffer from eating disorders. There are a lot more young women suffering from eating disorders than men in the society. Young women are very concerned with their weight that leads them to have eating disorders. They believe that losing weight will make them more attractive and popular with men.

After my intense research about the subject of eating disorders, I find that most people with eating disorders began the problems in their teens. Eating disorders can be caused by pressures from family and society that leads to loneliness, sadness and fear. Many teens feel pressured by their parents because their parents have control over their lives. As for societal pressures, it stems from magazines and advertisements. Due to those pressures, teens suffer from serious emotional problems.

Most people suffering from eating disorders try to hide their problems. They do not want their families and friends to know that they have any problems. With that in mind, they don’t participate in normal social activities. As a result, they will become more depressed and isolated. This disease causes physical and psychological problems.

The most serious eating disorders are Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. Most people suffering from Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa began in their teenage years. As a result, these diseases can be very serious and can cause death.

People with Anorexia Nervosa intentionally starve themselves in an effort to lose weight. According to Christina Chiu in her book, Eating Disorder Survivors Tell Their Stories, she writes that

“ People suffering from this disorder are never satisfied with their weight loss. No matter how much weight they lose, they still believe they are overweight. This is dangerous because a person with anorexia does not get enough food to carry on normal functions. This disease can cause serious heart and brain damage” (9).

People suffering from Bulimia will eat large amounts of food. The author Christina Chiu argues that,

“ People with Bulimia eat excessive amounts and then purge, they lose control when they are bingeing. They stop eating only when their bodies are in physical pain. Many people who suffer from binge eating are overweight or obese. People with Bulimia can cause damage to their esophagus and stomach from excessive vomiting or stomach acids. People with Bulimia risk having high cholesterol, high blood pressure and diabetes” (9 & 10).

In Hong Kong, young women are concerned about the size of their bodies. Because the society influences women to be slim, slim bodies are considered beautiful. People want to lose weight. Therefore, they eat very little and take diet pills. Women in the society being slim and looking good are more important than being healthy. As a result, the desire of being slim causes them to have eating disorders.

For example, a Hong Kong actress wanted to lose weight to make her more attractive and popular. She is 5 feet 5 inches and her weight was 105 pounds. She had lost close to thirty pounds. She had no body fat left, and her body was starting to burn muscle tissue. Her blood pressure was so low that she passed out frequently. But even then, she felt she hadn’t lost enough weight. Unfortunately, she was suffering from Anorexia Nervosa. She said that she was very depressed. She hid her problem and all the pressure built up inside her. She often avoided others because she was a famous actress. At that time, she knew if she didn’t see the doctors, she would eventually die. Therefore, she sought help because she believed therapy could help her to recover from Anorexia Nervosa. In addition, the recovery process was faster because of the support from family, friends and doctors.

In conclusion, people should be more concerned about their health than their bodies attractive. People should learn more about nutrition in order to eat healthy and balanced meals. In fact, if they have these problems, they need help to alleviate problems. Therefore, it is important to get support from people in your life, such as your family, your friends and your doctors. They help you to release your loneliness, fear, anger and unhappiness.


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